Population control is probably one of the most controversial topic in India. A nation, home to more than 1.3b people, 1/6th of the total population of the world is going through tough time to feed every empty stomach, educate every mind, and providing shelters to all. But still, many among masses aren’t ready to contemplate on it, and some are even more advanced, who continuously instigate others to condemn any such acts to reduce the pace of this ever growing population.People occasionally say that population is a plus point for any nation. Nations having this can flourish exponentially within short span of time, which is partly true. Man power is undoubtedly a very important resource for any nation, but this needs to be taken into account that we aren’t living in past centuries when emperor or empire with great human resources will grow big and rapidly. We are now living in 21st century, and to grow in contemporary world, we don’t need heavy number of labours, but need skilled ones, who can work with machineries. Earlier, man power was used to do every bit of task, but now, we only use them to operate. Every sort of work can be done by machines with even lower cost and higher accuracy. That’s why, having massive population is no more a boon now. Though how it is a bane, will be discussed in this article.In economics, there is a concept called “Diminishing marginal utility”. This concept tell us the different phases of production when we increase number of labours with fix number of machineries. In first stage, when man power is low and we increase it, production gets higher, in second phase when man power is optimum and still we increase it, marginal utility per unit increases, but with lower rate, in other words, production gets higher but with low rate, and in final stage when we continuously increase the number of labours with fix machineries, production starts diminishing. And this is exactly what is happening with India. We are in second phase of production where marginal utility is increasing, but with low rate. That’s why, a nation with 6th biggest nominal GDP, and 3rd biggest nominal(PPP) is on 142nd rank in per capita GDP ranking 2020 by International monetary fund. In short, we do not have sufficient resources to feed 1.3b population of India.So we have understood the first problem related to population that high number of workers, especially unskilled are making hurdles in a way to prosperity.Let’s now move on to second con of it which may be more disastrous than the first one, helplessness in using labour intensive economy, where we produce goods/services with the preference of labour.Since the industrialization started in Europe in 18th century, means of production consistently shifted from labour to capital(machinery). All the high income nations have capital intensive economy like USA, Japan, Germany, France, etc., while all the low income nations follow labour intensive economy like India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, etc. The reason is, now consumers are demanding more and more goods/services with quality, which cannot be manufactured by hands alone. To meet this requirement, machinery requires. That’s why all the rich nations have capital intensive economy, because they alone can fulfil the growing demand of goods/services of such demanding quality, whereas labour intensive economies fail on this criteria, results in the increase in gulf between their income. Now the question rises why such nations opt to stick on labour intensive economy. There are two major reasons, first one is, capital intensive economy requires huge amount of money which nations such as Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh cannot afford. And the second reason which resists nations like India is, their huge population. Imagine, if India chose to adopt capital intensive economy, or in other words, chose to use machines and digital ways to do every work. Of course, it will enhance production capacity of India, but will leave hundreds of thousands workers unemployed, whose place grabbed by capital. Some people will definitely become rich, but those who become unemployed will lose their source of income, and eventually will be trapped in poverty. Let’s understand with the help of an example. Consider two nations, one is United States, and another one India. United States has working population of 10, while India has 50. If they both opt capital intensive economy, only 5 workers will get employment. Now in United States half of the population will lose employment, but in India 9/10 of the total population will be affected. That’s why, it becomes tough for nations like India to mechanize. Nations like Unites states, Japan, or France don’t need to think for employment of their citizens, but nations like India need to think. This disability to mechanize and boost the country’s overall production and eventually in GDP is being resisted by our huge population.Not only these two factors are in road to success, but there are many more externalities of huge population are driving force behind it.Government expenditure in different sectors like scholarships to students with unprivileged background, mid day meal programme, massive expense on schemes like Open defecation free are some areas where government needs to invest a lot because people can’t afford it due to their low income.But, ironically neither problem seems to be solved in near future, nor the government can find any alternate instead of population control.